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According to 'Yoga-Sutra', wrong knowledge constitutes perverted perception of reality. In the midday sun, light reflected on hot sand in the desert gives the illusion of water. Rope lying on the road in the dark is mistaken for a snake. Wrong knowledge will cause us to deviate from the direction and trap the camel rider into a futile chase after water, probably leading to fatal consequences. Similarly, the rope mistaken for a snake will elicit fear forcing one to run, or thrash it with a stick or sword. In real life we make akin experiences, while buying a gift we must remember, 'everything that glitters is not gold'.

Knowledge which is not received from an authorised and authentic source is speculation and fabricated information. This knowledge will not help anyone to realise the Absolute Truth. A mind which is constantly engaged in speculation and fantasy will shun reality, or be frustrated with it since the truth does not conform with his/her fantasy. Mental acrobatics in fantasy or speculation is ego boosting, allowing oneself to laud her/his mental capacity. The futility of it all is that it alienates one from reality, and holds him/her captive in the make-believe world of delusion. Thus knowledge, instead of severing the shackles of recurring birth and death, it binds us stronger to the realm of duality of temporal joys and endless suffering. The problem why many fall victim to speculation and wrong knowledge is because he/she thinks that if I were to submit to an authority I would lose my freedom of thought. This is farthest from the truth. In fact, the truth is I would gain my permanent freedom, not only of thought, but of speech, action and so on.

Most persons who suffer from this misconception are unaware that the authority we must submit to be within ourselves, Paramatma, or Super soul. The Paramatma is the silent and unbiased witness to all our thoughts and actions. As soon as a direct contact with him is established, he takes an active role in our lives and is willing to become our most dear, and well-wishing friend.

Verbal delusion is to imaginatively construe an idea, meaning etc. about any subject without knowing details about it. A typical example is to jump to conclusions before the person speaking has finished his sentence or thought. While attending class, the student instead of paying attention to teacher's words closes the mind to the lecture and becomes caught up in his/her world of fantasy and delusion inside the mind. Even if such student's are of normal intelligence they suffer from performance below par at school. In sleep, the consciousness is withdrawn from the body and limits its activities in the cranial region. Only when required our thoughts award peripheral awareness to the physical demands in sleep.

Otherwise in deep sleep even a great commotion or a fire next door may go unnoticed. However, the mind remains fully active in the cranial region to more actively participate in dreams and register impulses from subconscious stratum of the mind, which in our wakeful state is a rare occurrence. In Vedic astrology, dreams have great significance, and can be accurately interpreted. However, even in deep sleep, the mind is not empty, its just that after waking we do not remember our thoughts. An empty or blank mind devoid of thought is only a temporary condition. Sometimes people suffering from depression or paranoia earnestly wish they could empty their minds of negative, disturbing thoughts. Thus sleep is a thought wave with no particular direction or intention, where the intellect and ego are no more demanding any service from the mind.