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Diagnosis Methodology in Ayurveda

Diagnosis of disease is almost important as the treatment itself, or you can say diagnosis is the comer stone of treatment. Also the diagnosis is done through examination and evaluation of panchanidana. According to Ayurveda, proper and adequate examination not only of the disease but of the patient before the treatment is undertaken. Disease Diagnosis is very unique in Ayurveda which makes no use of instruments. Ayurveda accepts three pramanas to determine the specific features of diseases:

1) Aptopdesha
2) Pratyaksha
3) Anumana

1) Aptopdesha

It can be defined as Instruction of the credible person. Communication by a credible authority involves the recipient of verbal knowledge, Further involving beliefs in the words spoken and the arousal of cognition by verbal indication leading to correct or valid comprehension.

2) Pratyaksha pramana ( Direct apprehension through sensory perception )

Acharya Charaka defines 'Pratyaksha Pramana' as direct apprehensions of objects through sense organs and mind. It is utmost important for diagnosis of diseases and evaluating curability of the disease. External objects are recognized by sensory organs (For example we can see citrus in patients eyes) while internal experiences like happiness, desire, hate are apprehended by mind. It is also said in the Ayurveda text as ‘Pratyaksha Hee Alpam Analpam Apratyaksham’, it means there are few things that can be seen but many while are not seen but present.