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According to Ayurveda, to understand the body one must first understand the elements which constitute a body. As per Ayurveda, material and non-material are two components that are necessary for creation of universe. These are known as Panchamahabhutas or Five Primordial Substances. They are of five types: Prithvi - Earth, Aap - Water, Tej - Fire, Vayu - Air and Akash - Space (ether). Non-material or Omni substances are of three types- Satva, Raja and Tama. They are also known as Trigunas. Satva means consciousness or knowledge, Rajas means motion or action and Tamas means inertia, resists other two.
Accordant to Ayurveda, everything in nature the body, food, season are all formed by combinations of Panchamahabhutas. Practitioners or whom we call as Vaidya’s group divide these five elements into three categories also known as Doshas. Vatta, Pitta and Kapha are the three Doshas which run the body. The treatments are aimed at restoring the balance by decreasing excessive elements and increasing others.
The knowledge of Ayurveda is believed to be of divine origin and was communicated to saints and sages of India who received their wisdom through meditation, these sages were deeply devoted people who considered health to be an important aspect of spiritual life. Originally, four books of spirituality which cover a vast numbers of subjects from astrology, health, business written in Sanskrit and are known as ‘Vedas’. These are four in number; they are Rig-Veda, Yajurveda, Samaveda and Atharvaveda of which Ayurveda is the Upveda (sub- section) of Atharvaveda.
Atharvaveda lists eight divisions of Ayurveda namely, Kayachikitsa (Internal Medicine), Shalakyachikitsa (Surgery of head, neck, and ophthalmology), Shalyachikitsa (Surgery), Agadtantra (Toxicology), Bhootvidya (Psychiatry), Kaumarbhrityatantra (Pediatrics), Rasayana (Science of rejuvenation) and Vajikaran (Science of fertility).

Ayurveda emphasize that whatever is present in the universe or Macrocosm is also present in the individual body or Microcosm. Man is a miniature of Nature; hence basic components of man and universe are same. In Sanskrit it is known as ‘Pinda bramhanda nyay’. It is believed that the microcosmic body when healthy is self perpetuating and self correcting. Hence, the use of Ayurvedic herbs for the treatment of ailments do not create any side effects as both our body and herbs used are primarily formed by the combination of theses Panchamahabhutas.

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